The OSCE says Ukraine and pro-Russian rebels have agreed “on the principle” of a ceasefire in the Luhansk region. A months-long ceasefire has often been broken. (02.12.2014) In 2009, Russia and the United States issued a joint statement that the security guarantees of the memorandum would be respected after the START treaty expired.  On March 24, 2014, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper held the G7 partners at an ad hoc meeting at the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague for a partial suspension of Russia`s membership due to a violation of the Budapest Memorandum by Russia. He said Ukraine had abandoned its nuclear weapons “on the basis of an explicit Russian guarantee of its territorial integrity.” By no longer committing this guarantee, President Putin has provided those who need little more than those already created by pride or resentment to arm themselves to the teeth. Mr. Harper also expressed support for Ukraine by saying he would work with the new Ukrainian government on a free trade agreement.  Harper died in the General Election on October 15, 2015 and resigned as leader of the Conservative Party. The memorandum contained security guarantees against threats or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Washington cannot undo Russia`s violations. However, it can and must do more to comply with its obligations under the Budapest Memorandum, doing more to strengthen Ukraine and punish Russia until Moscow changes its policy. Such a U.S.
action could also change the Ukrainian narrative in the hypothetical conversation with a North Korean diplomat to “violate the Russians from the memorandum, but the Americans fully supported us and made Moscow pay.” This would help restore the credibility of security guarantees as part of U.S. non-proliferation diplomacy. Schneider-Deters believes that Ukraine should not seek a succession agreement. Instead, it should build its own defense. Nevertheless, the nuclear regime obtained at the CONSTITUENT assemblies of the CIS in December 1991 was ambiguous. It provided for a kind of nuclear parachute to ensure the collective safety of all members of the community. Ukraine has pledged to transfer all tactical and strategic nuclear weapons to Russia. Until then, it has assumed certain obligations traditionally related to nuclear-weapon States, such as respect for the principle of initial non-use and the obligation not to transfer nuclear weapons to other States.  The agreements spoke of a common command and control, but did not say who owned the weapons.